News archive

Re-thinking applications in the edge computing era

posted Mar 17, 2019, 4:51 AM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Mar 18, 2019, 2:18 AM ]

The EU GDPR directive was a cornerstone in Information Society. More or less, it states that the ownership of data is an inalienable right of the data producer; before GDPR the data ownership was something marketable. Now, to use some else data, you need always get permissions that can be revoked anytime. Beside this, IoT requires more and more local data processing driving the edge computing paradigm.

Recent specifications like SOLID and IPFS promise radical but practical solutions to move toward a real data distribution paradigm, trying to restore the original objective of the web:  knowledge sharing. 

This view, where each person/machine has full control of his data, contrasts with the centralized application data architecture used by the majority of applications. 
Many signs tell us that this new vision is gaining consensus, both in the political and social world;  but today, even when applications claim to be distributed (e.g. Wikipedia), as a matter of fact, they still adopt a centralized data management architecture.

According to Sir Tim Berner Lee, "The future is still so much bigger than the past". To be ready, we need to rethink data architectures, allowing applications to use information produced and managed by someone, people or machines, out of our control.

The  Eric Brewer theorem (also known as CAP theorem), states that it is impossible for a distributed data store to simultaneously provide more than two out of the following three guarantees:
  • Consistency: Every read receives the most recent write or an error
  • Availability: Every request receives a (non-error) response – without the guarantee that it contains the most recent write
  • Partition tolerance: The system continues to operate despite an arbitrary number of messages being dropped (or delayed) by the network between nodes
CAP is frequently misunderstood as if one has to choose to abandon one of the three guarantees at all times. In fact, the choice is really between consistency and availability only when a network partition or failure happens; at all other times, no trade-off has to be made. 

But in a really distributed data model, where datasets are not in your control, network failure is ALWAYS an option, so you have always to chose.

Dynamic caching is probably the only practical solution to face the dataset distribution problem, but as soon as you replicate data, a tradeoff between consistency and latency arises.

Daniel J. Abadi from Yale University in 2010 found that even (E) when the system is running normally in the absence network errors, one has to choose between latency (L) and consistency (C). This is known as the PACELC theorem.

What all this does it means? You must start rethinking applications forgetting the deterministic illusion that functions return the same outputs when you provide the same inputs.
In fact, the determinism on which much of today's information technology is based should be questioned. We have to start thinking about everything in terms of probability.

That's already happening with search engines (you do not get the same result for the same query), or with social networks (you can't see the same list of messages). It is not a feature, it's due to technical constraints but Facebook, Google, and many other companies cleverly turned this problem into an opportunity, prioritizing ads, for instance.

If the edge computing paradigm will get the momentum,  all applications, also the corporate ones, will have to address similar issues. For instance, the customer/supplier registry could (or should ) be distributed.

Technologies and solutions such as IPFS,  Linked Data, and RDF Graph Databases provide practical solutions to caching and querying distributed dataset, helping to solve inconsistencies and performance issues. But they can not be considered a drop-in replacement of older technology: they are tools to be used to design a new generation of applications that are able to survive to the distributed dataset network.

Introducing the Financial Report Vocabulary

posted Feb 19, 2019, 7:33 AM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Feb 19, 2019, 7:33 AM ]

The Financial Report Vocabulary (FR) is an OWL vocabulary to describe a generic financial report.

The FR vocabulary can be used to capture different perspectives of report data like historical trends, cross-department, and component breakdown.

FR extends the W3C RDF Data Cube Vocabulary and it is inspired by the Financial Report Semantics and Dynamics Theory.

New KEES specifications

posted Feb 19, 2019, 7:19 AM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Feb 19, 2019, 7:27 AM ]

In order to let computers to work for us, they must understand data: not just the grammar and the syntax, but the real meaning of things.

KEES (Knowledge Exchange Engine Service) proposes some specifications to describe a domain knowledge in order to make it tradeable and shareable.

KEES allows to formalize and license:

  • how to collect the right data,
  • how much you can trust in your data,
  • what new information you can deduct from the collected data,
  • how to answer specific questions using data

A.I. and humans can use these know hows to reuse and enrich existing knowledge. KEES is a Semantic Web Application.

KEES Overview

Released µSilex

posted Oct 1, 2018, 12:32 PM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Feb 19, 2019, 7:12 AM ]

µSilex (aka micro Silex) is a micro framework inspired by Pimple and PSR standards. All with less than 100 lines of code!

µSilex is a try to build a standard middleware framework for developing micro-services and APIs endpoints that require maximum performances with a minimum of memory footprint.

Middleware is now a very popular topic in the developer community, The idea behind it is “wrapping” your application logic with additional request processing logic, and then chaining as much of those wrappers as you like. So when your server receives a request, it would be first processed by your middlewares, and then after you generate a response it will also be processed by the same set:
It may sound complicated, but in fact, it’s very simple if you look at some examples of what could be a middleware:

  • Firewall – check if requests are allowed from a particular IP
  • JSON Formatter – Parse JSON post data into parameters for your controller. Then turn your response into JSON before sending ti back
  • smart proxies - forward a request to other servers filtering and enriching the message payload.

SDaaS community edition released

posted Sep 18, 2018, 1:22 AM by Enrico Fagnoni

A simplified version of LinkedData.Center SDaaS™ platform was released with an open source model.

Metaphors, Models, and Theories

posted Aug 30, 2018, 9:52 PM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Sep 1, 2018, 12:00 AM ]

Because most  software developers are not familiar with using “formal theories” it is worth explaining what a theory is. 

In his book, “Models. Behaving. Badly.”,  Emanual Derman explains the differences between metaphors, models, and theories.
  • A metaphor describes something less understandable by relating it to something more understandable.
  • A model is a specimen that exemplifies the ideal qualities of something. Models tend to simplify. There tend to always be gaps between models and reality. Models are analogies; they tend to describe one thing relative to something else. Models need a defense or an explanation.
  • A theory describes absolutes. Theories are the real thing. A theory describes the object of its focus. A theory does not simplify. Theories are irreducible, the foundation on which new metaphors can be built. A successful theory can become a fact. A theory describes the world and tries to describe the principles by which the world operates. A theory can be right or wrong, but it is characteristic by its intent: the discovery of essence.
Theories can be expressed logically, mathematically, symbolically, or in common language; but are generally expected to follow well understood principles of logic or rational thought.

Theory can be implemented within a robust model which is understandable by computer software.

Linked Data in Robotics and Industry 4.0

posted Mar 27, 2018, 10:10 AM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Mar 27, 2018, 10:32 AM ]

Industry 4.0
is a collective term (created in Germany) for the technological concepts of cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things and the Internet of Services, leading to the vision of the Smart Factory. Within a modular structured Smart Factory, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and humans in real time. In addition, one of the aims in robotics is to build smarter robots that can communicate, collaborate and operate more naturally and safely. Increasing a robot’s knowledge and intelligence is a vital for the successful implementation of Industry 4.0, since traditional approaches are not flexible enough to respond to the rapidly changing demands of new production processes and their growing complexity. 

As identified in both academia and industry, there are several design principles in Industry 4.0, which support companies in identifying and implementing Industry 4.0 scenarios:

  • Interoperability: the ability of cyber-physical systems (i.e. workpiece carriers or assembly stations) and humans to connect and communicate via the Internet of Things 
  • Virtualization: linking sensor data (from monitoring physical processes) with virtual plant models and simulation models 
  • Decentralization: the ability of cyber-physical systems within Smart Factories to make decisions on their own
  • Real-Time Capability: the capability to collect and analyze data and provide the derived insights immediately
  • Service Orientation: offering of services (cyber-physical systems, humans or Smart Factories)
  • Modularity: flexible adaptation of Smart Factories to changing requirements by replacing or expanding individual modules
In addition, one of the aims in robotics is to build smarter robots that can communicate, collaborate and operate more naturally and safely. Increasing a robot’s knowledge and intelligence is a vital for the successful implementation of Industry 4.0, since traditional approaches are not flexible enough to respond to the rapidly changing demands of new production processes and their growing complexity. Linked data represents a promising approach to overcome limitations of the state-of the- art solutions. The following list of topics is indicative: 

  • Knowledge Representation for Robotics 
  • Data integration 
  • Motion and task planning
  • Manipulation and grasping
  • Object and place recognition
  • Human-Robot and Robot-Robot Interaction
  • Navigation
  • Databases for robotics applications
  • Multidisciplinary Topics 

China’s next Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan

posted Mar 19, 2018, 2:36 AM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Mar 19, 2018, 2:44 AM ]

The rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) will profoundly change human society and life and change the world. To seize the major strategic opportunity for the development of AI, to build China’s first-mover advantage in the development of AI, to accelerate the construction of an innovative nation and global power in science and technology, in accordance with the requirements of the CCP Central Committee and the State Council, this plan has been formulated.

Download the translation

Come sopravvivere al digital marketing

posted Mar 6, 2018, 3:05 AM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Mar 20, 2018, 10:56 AM ]

Sono molteplici e diverse le componenti che si combinano per creare le nuove professioni su internet.

LinkedData.Center in collaborazione con il Comune di Lecco presenta il primo di due incontri gratuiti per conoscere le evoluzioni del Digital Marketing e le opportunità degli open data.

Giovedi 15 marzo 2018 ore 21:00 - Informagiovani - Via dell’Eremo 28 a Lecco

Ambasciatori della cultura e della legalità

posted Mar 6, 2018, 3:02 AM by Enrico Fagnoni   [ updated Mar 6, 2018, 3:03 AM ]

Tecnologie e informatica per il contrasto dell’illegalità e della criminalità nel mondo dell’impresa e del lavoro. Giustizia “(inter)connessa”

Venerdì 9 marzo 2018 ore 10:00 - Camera di Commercio di Lecco, Auditorium - Casa dell’Economia Via Tonale 28,30

Quali sono le sfide dell’organizzazione della giustizia che provengono dalla globalizzazione e dalla rivoluzione tecnologica in atto? Le barriere fisiche/geografiche/statuali tendono a perdere di significatività in maniera sempre più rapida; aumenta la possibilità di spostare, in modo rapidissimo – fisico e virtuale – flussi di persone, beni e soprattutto denaro. Come deve attrezzarsi l’organizzazione della giustizia per stare al passo con i tempi? Come cambiano le strategie della criminalità organizzata, anche a livello di penetrazione nel tessuto imprenditoriale? E quali risposte deve dare la giustizia? Quali sono le professionalità del futuro in ambito giudiziario? Che tipo di skills sono richieste a chi opera ai diversi livelli dell’organizzazione della giustizia? Quanto “valore”, in termini economici, produce l’amministrazione della giustizia? Anche l’amministrazione della giustizia funziona come istituzione redistributiva? Qual è il “costo” della legalità? Perché vale certamente la pena di pagarlo?

Organizzata da:


Coordinatore: Prof. Avv. Giuseppe Aglialoro, Fondatore e Segretario Internazionale

Scarica il proramma

Con il patrocinio di:



  • Enrico Consolandi, Giudice referente distrettuale per l’informatica Corte Appello Milano
  • Antonio Martino, Avvocato Milano
  • Enrico Fagnoni, Presidente start-up innovativa “LinkedData.Center srl” download presentazione
  • Fabio Arinella, Consulente Lavoro
  • Claudia Bazzoni, Project Manager “CodHer srl”
  • Aurelio Mauri, Professore associato Economia e gestione delle imprese Università Iulm
  • Giuseppe Sopranzetti, Direttore Banca d’Italia – Sede Milano

Commento al tema

  • Angelo Mambriani, Presidente sez. Specializzata in materia di Impresa Tribunale Milano

Alcune Autorità che hanno aderito al Progetto:

Ersilio Secchi, Presidente Tribunale Lecco e Presidente Agg. Fondazione Cirgis, Virginio Brivio, Sindaco Lecco, Daniele Riva, Presidente Camera di Commercio Lecco, Rossella Pulsoni, Segretario Generale Camera di Commercio Lecco, Marinella Maldini, Consigliere Istruzione – Formazione Provincia Lecco, Luigi Rovelli, Presidente Emerito Corte Cassazione, Presidente e. Cirgis, Rosa Polizzi, Presidente sez. Corte Appello Milano, Presidente Cirgis, Gloria Servetti, Presidente Corte Appello Trento, Presidente Fondazione Cirgis, Maria Luisa Padova, Presidente sez. Corte Appello Milano, Vice Presidente Cirgis, Giuseppe La Mattina, Presidente O. Agg. Suprema Corte, Vice Presidente Fondazione Cirgis

Coordinatore Scuole

Prof. Mauro Verzeroli, Presidente CdA Fondazione

1-10 of 42